Czech grammar for beginners. The first lesson of the Czech language from scratch
Grammar is the basis of the language, it is necessary to know grammar well in order to pass the language exam and in order to communicate fluently in Czech. Recommended textbooks with well-written grammar: “český krok za krokem”, “čeština pro cizince” Knowledge of grammar is a skill that is acquired gradually, it is impossible to learn all the rules one day before the exam, you need to constantly disassemble it, go through the rules again and again, make sentences, communicate. In order for the information to be fixed, it must be constantly used. Czech grammar for beginners.
A Czech sentence cannot be without a verb. The verb-bundle “je” is the 3rd person singular form of the verb být (to be, to exist, to be). For example: To je obchod. It is a store.
Since the verb “být” is one of the main ones in the Czech language, its conjugation will have to be learned by heart. Verb conjugation být:
- (já) jsem nejsem / (my) jsme nejsme
- (ty) jsi nejsi/ (vy) jste nejste
- (on/ona/ono) je není / (oni/ony/ona) jsou nejsou
In addition, the present tense of the verb být is included as an auxiliary verb in the past tense forms (1st and 2nd person singular and plural). It consists of the present tense forms of the verb být and the past tense of the semantic verb Já jsem šel. – I walked. In the third person, both singular and plural, the auxiliary verbs are not used. On odešel. – He’s gone.
The forms of the auxiliary verb být (to be) that are part of the past tense are unstressed. In a sentence, they stand after the first word or phrase. The return particles se and si are placed after them:
- Včera jsem tam byl. – Yesterday I was there.
- Včera jsem se vrátil pozdě. – I came back late yesterday.
Verb mít (to have). Czech grammar for beginners
Often constructions with the verb mít are translated as “I have”, “he has”, etc. Conjugation of the verb mít. Past tense
- (já) mám nemám měl/a jsem
- (ty) máš nemáš měl/a jsi
- (on/ona/ono) má nemá měl/a/o
- (my) máme nemáme měli/y jsme
- (vy) máte nemáte měli/y jste
- (oni/ony/ona) mají nemají měli/y/a
Many verbs that end in -at are conjugated in the same way: znát, dělat, vstávat, dát.
Example: dělat – já dělám, ty děláš, on dělá, my děláme, vy děláte, oni dělají.
There are many constructions with the verb mít. The most common are mám rád +noun: Mám rád květiny. – I love flowers; and rád + verb form: Rád se učím. – I like to study.
Remember that the negative particle ne in Czech is always written together with the verb!
Czech lessons online for free. In the Czech language, the reflexive particles se and si with the verb are written separately, moreover, in a sentence they can stand separately from it.
In a sentence, se and si usually take place after the first word or phrase. For example: Verb učit se: Studenti se před zkouškami pilně učí. (Students study diligently before exams).
If a sentence begins with a reflexive verb, then se and si stand directly behind it. Učíme se česky. We are learning Czech.
Sometimes in the Czech language the particle se is also used with other verbs, for example: ptát se (to ask) dívat se (to watch).
Czech language lessons online for free. To remember exactly when the particle se is used, and when si will not be easy at first. To begin with, you can use the following hint:
– If the action is performed on the main character or subject of the narrative, then, as a rule, the particle se is used. For example:
- I study. Já se učím. Učím se. (the personal pronoun is often omitted)
- He’s getting dressed. On se obléká. Obléká se.
– If the action is performed with another object in the sentence, then the particle si is usually used.
- He’s wearing a sweater. – On si oblékl svetr. Oblékl si svetr.
- Listen to the song. – Poslechni si píseň.